Aphthas and stomatitis

About the Disorder

Aphthas are ulcerations of the gums and of the mucosa in the oral cavity, which appear as small, roundish erosions of the oral mucosa, measuring from 1 to over 10 millimeters. At first their aspect is that of red sores; in the following 24 hours, the ulceration turns into a white patch on the oral mucosa in which a liquid accumulates very quickly: the lesion becomes a blister. These vescicles have an extremely thin and delicate coating that can easily break, in which case they leave a small ulcer causing pain and irritation following contact with food, saliva and tongue. Besides pain, typical symptoms are tingling and inflammation of the affected area. The areas mostly involved are the lips and the internal part of the cheeks, as well as tongue, gums and palate. Aphthas can appear at all ages, but they are most frequently found among youngsters aged between ten and twenty, in females more than in males; aphthas are not transmissible.

Despite the fact that the causes triggering aphthas are not yet well known, predisposing factors are, apart from poor oral hygiene, the intake of irritant foods, intoxication, food intolerances and food deficits (vitamin B12, folic acid, iron): all problems caused by malfunctioning intestinal absorption.

Imbalances of the intestinal bacterial flora, bad digestion, diarrhea or chronic constipation are disorders potentially related to the development of gingival aphthas; but stress, local traumas, menstruations and hormonal disfunctions can be triggering factors, as well. This is the reason why following a healthy diet plays a key role in these cases in particular, not only to avoid the formation of dental plaque but also to correct possible intestinal imbalances.

Stomatitis is also an inflammation of the mucous tissue covering the inner structure of the oral cavity, involving cheeks, gums, tongue, internal part of the lips, palate and floor of the mouth. However, in this case the number of ulcerations appearing is higher compared to single aphthas.

 In this case, too, causes can be numerous and of different kinds: microbial infections (bacteria, viruses, fungi), problems of the oral cavity such as poor hygiene, inadequate prosthesis, carious or broken teeth; it can also be caused by burns from boiling hot food or drinks, by irritant substances (tobacco, alcohol, spices), intake of drugs (particularly antibiotics), hypersensitivity to substances contained in mouthwashes, toothpaste, lipsticks, exposure to heavy metals (mercury, lead, bismuth), allergic reactions or nutrient deficiencies (vitamin C, B12, folic acid, iron).

Generally speaking, stomatitis is painful and can present with feelings of uneasiness, local pain and burning, redness and swelling of the mucosa; aphthas can appear as well and there can be bleeding.  Another possible symptom is halitosis. How to treat stomatitis depends on identifying the triggering cause – not always that easy to detect.

Treatment of aphthas and stomatitis using traditional medicine 

Despite the fact that these problems are triggered by several factors, traditional medicine is mainly concerned with resolving the symptom by acting at local level. Mainly disinfectant mouthwashes are recommended, often associated with antibiotic treatments in low doses. Recommended mode of use is usually direct application of the antibiotic on the affected area. Where a fungal infection is suspected in the oral cavity, antifungal treatment is prescribed, consisting in preparations for local use.

However, besides not being effective in case of viral infections, such categories of medicines are well-known for their harmful collateral effects: apart from impoverishing physiological microbial flora, antibiotics are responsible for the development of bacterial resistance and sensitization; antifungals, too, which aim to eliminate fungi, exert negative action against the organism  by leaving the intestinal microbial flora seriously undermined after the therapy, besides neglecting to restore  the optimal physiological conditions typical of a healthy organism.

Traditional treatment of aphthas (or stomatitis) is also carried out by adding anti-inflammatory, cortisone-based medicines or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in preparations for topical use (solutions, also in spray bottles, or buccal adhesive tablets). These two classes of medicines are, however, too responsible for a long series of side-effects, all the more serious the longer the period of intake. Both easy to find and with a strong anti-inflammatory action, they are responsible for the insurgence of irritations and burning on the area of application. Even though it is a well-known fact that side-effects originating from cortisone-based medicines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories are much more serious: in low doses, the former can trigger glaucoma, intracranial hypertension, bowel perforation, gastric ulcer, gastric hemorrhage; in medium-level doses: myopathy, increased blood pressure, diabetes, cataract; in high doses: hyperglycemia, liquid retention, weight gain, growth retardation, osteoporosis, gastric ulcer and reduced immune defences.

The latter (salicylic acetyl acid, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, diclofenac,nimesulide, etc.) act by inhibiting synthesis of chemical mediators called “prostaglandins”: this action is at the origin of both pharmacological activity as well as of numerous side-effects. To understand how this is possible it should be recalled that prostaglandins carry out several organic functions: there are, infact, what can be defined as “bad” prostaglandins (although the expression is not entirely correct) because being pro-inflammatory, they determine the occurrence of inflammation, hyperalgesia, high temperature; however, there are also “good” prostaglandins carrying out several physiological activities, by promoting protection of the stomach from gastric juices, regulating renal blood flow, uterine contractions, platelet activity, etc.

This said, it is clear that the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, often turning into “drug abuse” given their easy retrievability, is connected to several side-effects. Examples thereof are: the inhibition of gastric protection, with consequences ranging from simple irritation to lesions, ulcer and gastro-intestinal hemorrhage; inhibition of platelet aggregation, renal ischaemia, generic nephropathy, renal failure, etc.

Nature can help you resolve aphthas and stomatitis   

Our Approach

A natural and effective approach

Resolving the very widespread problem of aphthas (and of stomatitis) without recurring to synthetic medicines (triggering several side-effects) is possible thanks to the extraordinary properties of Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE), both effective and safe.

GSE, aphthas and stomatitis   

Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) has extraordinary broad spectrum antimicrobial properties: in fact, it is active against about 800 bacterial strains (both Gram positive and Gram negative), as well as against 100 strains of yeast and moulds (among which the much-feared Candida albicans), and numerous viruses and parasites. What is somewhat surprising and unequalled in nature, is GSE’s selectivity, as proven by a study published in the “Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine”, volume 5 n° 3 of 1990: in fact, while GSE is active against pathogens, it remains almost harmless towards physiological bacteria and therefore does not alter defensive mucosal bacterial flora in a significant way.

 These properties make it the ideal ingredient to hygienise the oral cavity and effectively contrast microbial proliferations and fermentations potentially causing aphthas and stomatitis. The usefulness of GSE with regard to these disorders, whether of viral, bacterial, fungal or even inflammatory origin, is therefore primarily related to its activity at oral cavity level when included in appropriate formulations such as gel, tablets, mouthwashes and toothpaste.

 In any case, GSE carries out a systemic action: in fact, whenever factors triggering aphthas and stomatitis are connected to intestinal dysbiosis, its activity as a “selective cleanser” is particularly useful to restore a healthy condition.

For the above-mentioned reasons, GSE therefore represents the cornerstone of an extraordinarily effective approach against aphthas and stomatitis, in association with specific vegetable extracts, through a mechanism of action enabling to:

  1. hygienise, protect from inflammation and gain relief from pain by cicatrising ulcerations in the mucosae and rapidly restoring the physiology of the affected area;
  2. hygienise the oral cavity and normalise pH levels, eliminating dental plaque and preventing its formation;  
  3. maintain correct, scrupulous daily oral hygiene.

This approach, associated as always with a healthy lifestyle (in terms of diet, but not only), includes the use of natural remedies that are well known in folk tradition and the efficacy of which in providing a definitive solution has been confirmed by recent studies.

1.To hygienise, protect from inflammation and gain relief from pain by cicatrising ulcerations in the mucosae and rapidly restoring the physiology of the affected area…

Nature can help you with…

Grapefruit Seed Extract: for local use, GSE acts as a “selective cleanser”, contrasting the proliferation of microorganisms present in the area featuring ulceration of the mucosa, thanks to its broad spectrum, real germicide action. It is therefore an essential, natural hygieniser, while fully respecting  the oral mucosa’s physiology.

Xylitol (extract from Betula Penula):   a polyalcohol with 5 atoms of carbon, with powerful antimicrobial functions. It therefore inhibits bacterial proliferation and normalizes pH levels, stimulating alkalinity. These features make it an irreplaceable element in the fight against and prevention of gingival disorders.

 Aloe vera gel: a plant native to Africa, typical of hot, desert regions, characterized by fleshy leaves with spiny margins. The presence of polysaccharides (glucomannan, galactose, pentose, uronic acid), give the plant a marked anti-inflammatory effect, which is at the same time also hydrating and emollient. The synergy of these plant active constituents is responsible for the beneficial effects of aloe gel on the skin.

Aloe gel also contains several amino acids, a few acids (citric, malic, succinic), polyunsaturated fatty acids (γ-linoleic   and arachidonic), several enzymes (among which ciclooxygenase), saponins, anthracenic compounds,  an essential oil, vitamins, mineral salts and a few hormone-like substances. The reason why aloe has been selected for this formulation is its capacity to create a protective film safeguarding the affected area, soothing pain and contributing to rapidly reduce inflammation.

Liquorice (root extract): a perennial, herbaceous and frost-resistant rustic plant, characterized by a vertical root flanked by some almost horizontal stolons. Clinical studies have shown that the drug obtained from the root, the main consituent of which is glycyrrhizinic acid, is useful in reducing healing time and pain associated to the irritation. The root moreover contains an essential oil, as well as triterpenic saponins, flavonoids, vitamins, coumarins, sugars and proteins; it therefore exerts lenitive, refreshing, emollient, purifying, tonic, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing actions.

Melaleuca (essential oil):  an Australian myrtaceae, its leaves are used to obtain Tea Tree essential oil, containing a number of functional components that confer germicide, bactericed and fungicide properties. It is employed as an anti-infective, cicatrizing, antiseptic and analgesic, and in case of oral disorders it provides immediate relief as a painkiller.

Eucalyptus (essential oil): mainly consisting in cineol (eucalyptol) and small quantities of monoterpenes, it has disinfectant, antibacterial, antiviral, balsamic, antiseptic and analgesic properties.

Sodium Hyaluronate: a physiological constituent of the basic extra-cellular substance of connective tissues, in the vitreous humour of the eye and synovial fluid. Its physico-chemical characteristics make it useful in protective, hydrating, emollient and smoothing formulations. In addition, it helps maintain the most important features of young, healthy skin, such as flexibility, elasticity and turgidity, as well as preserving the protective mechanism of skin and mucosae. It has good water storage properties and is a lubricating and turgidifying agent.

The ideal means to convey these vegetable functional components is a product in gel form, to be applied directly on the area affected by aphthas and stomatitis.

  1. To hygienise the oral cavity and normalise pH levels, eliminating dental plaque and preventing its formation…

Nature can help you with…

Grapefruit Seed Extract, a powerful natural hygieniser:  Laboratories, Universities and Institutes worldwide have proven, with studies and publications, that GSE (Grapefruit Seed Extract), contains a broad spectrum germicide. A powerful antibacterial also acting against the agent responsible for Streptococcus mutans plaque formation, GSE is an antiviral, antifungal and antiparisitic, while remaining almost harmless towards physiological bacteria.

GSE is unique of its kind owing to its extraordinary selectivity combined with its absolute harmlessness, making it a work of art in Nature. The most interesting function carried out by GSE when included in this formulation is its antibacterial activity; bacterial plaque is primarily responsible for the formation and development of most disorders involving gingival gums.

Xylitol (extract from Betula Penula) is a polyalcohol with 5 atoms of carbon, with powerful antimicrobial functions. It therefore inhibits bacterial proliferation and normalizes pH levels, stimulating alkalinity. These features make it an irreplaceable element in the fight against and prevention of gingival disorders.

These functional ingredients have been skillfully conveyed in tablets to be taken orally, in specific doses, after meals, whenever toothbrushing is not possible.

  1. To maintain correct, scrupulous daily oral hygiene

Nature can help you with…

Grapefruit Seed Extract: for local use, GSE acts as a “selective cleanser”, contrasting the proliferation of microorganisms in the area presenting ulceration of the mucosa, thanks to its broad spectrum real germicide action. It is therefore an essential, natural hygieniser, while fully respecting the oral mucosa’s physiology.

Xylitol (extract from Betula Penula): is a polyalcohol with 5 atoms of carbon, with powerful antimicrobial functions. It therefore inhibits bacterial proliferation and normalizes pH levels, stimulating alkalinity. These features make it an irreplaceable element in the fight against and prevention of gingival disorders.

Aloe vera gel: a plant native to Africa, typical of hot, desert regions, characterized by fleshy leaves with spiny margins. The presence of polysaccharides (glucomannan, galactose, pentose, uronic acid), give the plant a marked anti-inflammatory effect, which is at the same time also hydrating and emollient.

The synergy of these plant active principles is responsible for the beneficial effects of aloe gel on the skin.  Aloe gel also contains several amino acids, a few acids (citric, malic, succinic), polyunsaturated fatty acids ( (γ-linoleic   and arachidonic), several enzymes (among which ciclooxygenase), saponins, anthracenic compounds,  an essential oil, vitamins, mineral salts and a few hormone-like substances. The reason why aloe has been selected for this formulation is its capacity to create a protective film safeguarding the affected area, soothing pain and contributing to rapidly reduce inflammation.

Rhatany (extract): a leguminous shrub growing on dry soil exposed to the sun in the Andean mountains of Peru, Boliva and Chile. It contains the following active constituents: rhatanotannic acid, rhatanin, mucilages, sugars, starch, gum and wax. The part employed is the bark. It has astringent, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizing and slightly disinfectant properties.

Sanicula (extract): black snakeroot is a perennial plant of the Umbrelliferae family , growing wildly in broadleaf and coniferous mixed stands. Constituents: vitamins A – B – C – E – K – PP, tannins, pectins conferring astringent, and above all cicatrizing properties.

Equisetum (extract): a flowerless plant growing on damp, gravelly ground, commonly called “horsetail” due to its particular aspect. The part employed consists in cauliculi (sterile stems) and the plant active constituents are: mineral substances (silicic acid or silica, potassium, manganese, selenium), flavonoids, sterols, saponins, organic acids, phytosterols, vitamin C, traces of alkaloids.

The remineralising action is mainly due to silicon, facilitating the formation of calcium carbonate. Equisetum increases the elasticity of tissues and acts positively on relaxed skin, as well as enhancing elasticity of vascular walls, stimulating connective tissue.

Macrocystis (extract): a large, brown algae, growing along the outer coasts of the Kerguelen islands (Antarctic). The alga has adapted its metabolism so as to resist to unfavourable environmental conditions. A rich source of natural vitamins and minerals, it contains iodine, iron, sodium, phosphorus and calcium, as well as magnesium and potassium; it is well-known for being a particularly valuable source of iodine and potassium. Moreover, it contains vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D and E, as well as amino acids. It offers the following cosmetic benefits: control over photoageing and physiological ageing, restructuring effect; it protects and improves collagen and elastin.

Orange and Lemon (juice): natural citrus juices that, besides having an astringent function, confer to the product a very pleasant taste and refresh the breath.

The best formulation combining all of the above-described functional ingredients is a toothpaste recommended for daily use after meals for its efficacy, consistency , smoothness and for its cosmetic pleasantness – all features obtained “as they traditionally used to be”.

For pediatric use

Nature can help you with…

Grapefruit Seed Extract: for local use, owing to its broad spectrum real germicide action GSE acts as a “selective cleanser”, contrasting the proliferation of microorganisms in the area presenting ulceration of the mucosa. It is therefore an essential, natural hygieniser, while fully respecting the oral mucosa’s physiology.

Xylitol (extract from Betula Penula): is a polyalcohol with 5 atoms of carbon, with powerful antimicrobial functions. It therefore inhibits bacterial proliferation and normalizes pH, stimulating alkalinity. These features make it an irreplaceable element in the fight against and prevention of gingival disorders.

Aloe vera gel: a plant native to Africa, typical of hot, desert regions, characterized by fleshy leaves with spiny margins. The presence of polysaccharides (glucomannan, galactose, pentose, uronic acid), gives the plant marked anti-inflammatory, as well as hydrating and emollient effects. The synergy of these plant active constituents is responsible for the beneficial effects of aloe gel on the skin.

Aloe gel also contains several amino acids, a few acids (citric, malic, succinic), polyunsaturated fatty acids ( (γ-linoleic   and arachidonic), several enzymes (among which ciclooxygenase), saponins, anthracenic compounds,  an essential oil, vitamins, mineral salts and a few hormone-like substances. The reason why aloe has been selected for this formulation is its capacity to create a protective film safeguarding the affected area, soothing pain and contributing to reduce inflammation rapidly.

Altea (root extract): a herbaceous plant growing wildly in damp areas, along ditches, on marshy terrain. It is rich in mucilages, pectins, starch, sugars (glucose and sucrose), lecithin, asparagine, phytosterols. Thanks to its precious plant active constituents, Altea reduces inflammation in irritated mucosae, and is therefore indicated to soothe irritations and inflammation of the gums. Moreover, mucilages create a kind of water-retaining net, performing different functions : firstly, they tend to minimize evaporation at epidermal level by forming a thin protective film on the skin; secondly they act as primary moisturizing agents, absorbing humidity from the surrounding environment and releasing it on the skin.

Hence, Altea extracts carry out an effective moisturizing, emollient, protective and refreshing action on both skin and mucosae. Pectins, as well, with their gelling and hydrating action, perform an orthodermic function and act as softeners with a smoothing effect on skin and mucosae, much like sugars, also part of Altea extract active constituents. Such active constituents, with a specific soothing and protective function, make the plant particularly useful whenever it is necessary to maintain and restore the correct level of moisturisation in both skin and mucosae.

Alfalfa (extract): one of the most ancient plants belonging to the legume family; rich in nutritional virtues owing to the fact that its roots penetrate deep into the soil in search of minerals. A perennial plant, it grows easily on any type of ground and in almost any climate. Rich in minerals, Alfalfa  is precious for its high vitamin A content and is a good source of pyridoxine, a vitamin of the B complex. It is considered one of the most reliable sources of vitamin E and, moreover, it is rich in vitamin K, which protects from hemorrhages as it regulates blood coagulation. Rich in minerals such as phosphorus, silicon, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, iron, manganese, copper and cobalt, it has  a remineralizing effect. Alfalfa is the plant with the highest content of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin E. For this reason, it is particularly indicated to improve the aborption of calcium and promote formation of calcium carbonate (for teeth and bones), particularly during periods of growth.

Nettle (extract): a perennial plant owing to its root, which is very  extendend, branched and fibrous. It is surely among the medicinal plants that are most rich in therapeutic active constituents, comprising nitrogenous substances (proteins and amino acids), sugars, fat, phytosterols, an essential oil rich in ketones, aldehydes and acids, formic acid, sulphur, mineral salts, vitamins (B, C,K) and provitamins, besides tannins, waxes and mucilages. Given that it is particularly rich in calcium and phosphorus, it is considered important for its remineralising action on the teeth because it promotes formation of calcium carbonate.

Raspberry (juice): raspberry fruits contain organic acids (malic, oxalic, tannic and tartaric) and pectins; their juice has anti-inflammatory properties and it is an ancient remedy, useful in treating affections of the oral cavity. In addition, it gives the product a pleasant taste which is particularly appealing to children. The best formulation combining all the above-mentioned constituents is a toothpaste in gel that can be used with little water and produces an adequate amout of foam. Daily use is recommended, after each meal.

Nature can help you with…

Grapefruit Seed Extract: for local use, GSE acts as a “selective cleanser”, contrasting the proliferation of microorganisms in the area presenting ulceration of the mucosa, thanks to its broad spectrum real germicide action. It is therefore an essential, natural hygieniser, while fully respecting the oral mucosa’s physiology.

Xylitol (Betula Penula extract):   a polyalcohol with 5 atoms of carbon, with powerful antimicrobial functions. It therefore inhibits bacterial proliferation and normalizes pH levels, stimulating alkalinity. These features make it an irreplaceable element in the fight against and prevention of gingival disorders.

Aloe vera gel:  a plant native to Africa, typical of hot, desert regions, characterized by fleshy leaves with spiny margins. The presence of polysaccharides (glucomannan, galactose, pentose, uronic acid), gives the plant marked anti-inflammatory, as well as hydrating and emollient effects.  The synergy of these plant active constituents is responsible for the beneficial effects of aloe gel on the skin.

Aloe gel also contains several amino acids, a few acids (citric, malic, succinic), polyunsaturated fatty acids ( (γ-linoleic   and arachidonic), several enzymes (among which ciclooxygenase), saponins, anthracenic compounds,  an essential oil, vitamins, mineral salts and a few hormone-like substances. The reason why aloe has been selected for this formulation is its capacity to create a protective film safeguarding the affected area, soothing pain and contributing to reduce inflammation rapidly.

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra): Elderberry extract has shown extraordinary antiviral activity, both directly as it inhibits viral antigen attacks (Hemagglutinin) against cellular receptors, and indirectly, with its immodulating effect as it improves the efficiency of Th1 lymphocyte component.  The ursolic acid contained in its phytocompound moreover ensures an anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving and antipyretic action.

Sambuco (berries): Elderberry is a small tree reaching a few metres in height and belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family. The berries mainly contain an essential oil rich in free fatty acids, flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, triterpenes, mucilages and tannins.

Folk medicine has always attributed several healing virtues to Elderberry berries, handing down a whole series of possible applications: it is specific remedy for neuralgias, particularly for trigeminal neuralgia, as well as toothache. Anthocyanins, which are particularly concentrated in the berry juice, increase resistance and diminish capillary permeability; they also have an anti-inflammatory effect.

Buckhorn: a rustic plant flourishing spontaneously in poor soil. Its orange-coloured fruits are called dropes and have an acidulous taste. They remain on the plant all winter and are characterized by a high concentration of vitamin C and group B vitamins, besides organic acids and carotenoids. It has a marked cicatrizing activity, to the extent that it has proven healing power in case of gastric ulcer, since it diminishes proteolytic activity of acid protease in both mucosa and crystalline pepsin.

Achillea (extract): a very common plant growing wildly along roads, ditches, in field and on uncultivated land. For medicinal use, the flower heads are used. Among its active constituents, first and foremost there is an essential oil consisting in several terpenes, organic acids, flavonoids, besides chamazulene, mucilages, tannins and phytosterols.

Bioflavonoids are active constituents that help maintain the normal integrity of capillaries, renormalizing functions that have been attenuated due to increased fragility or diminished resistance. The protective, refreshing action of Achillea extracts is attributable to the above-mentioned chamazulene and flavonoids.

Atomized Seawater: a concentration of sea water, particularly rich in macro-elements such as calcium and magnesium and in trace elements such as iron and zinc. The body requires a very small quantity of trace elements, yet a lack of these can cause a great number disorders. Atomized seawater restores the right balance of such elements (in fact, it contains 92 different elements) and exerts a revitalizing and toning effect on the oral mucosa.

The ideal formulation to convey these ingredients is a mouthwash to be used undiluted, for rinsing twice or three times a day.

Nature can help you with…

Grapefruit Seed Extract: for local use, thanks to its broad spectrum germicide action, GSE acts as a “selective cleanser”,  countering the proliferation of microorganisms in the area presenting ulceration of the mucosa.  It is therefore an essential natural hygieniser, while fully respecting the natural physiology of the oral mucosa.

Xylitol (birch bark extract): a polyalcohol with 5 atoms of carbon, with powerful antimicrobial functions. It therefore inhibits bacterial proliferation and normalizes pH levels, stimulating alkalinity. These features make it an irreplaceable element in the fight against and prevention of gingival disorders

Myrrh (extract):  a shrub of the Burseraceae family, growing in Arabia, North-East Africa, Egypt and Sudan. Its application on skin and mucosae is useful due to its refreshing, anti-inflammatory, rejuvenating  properties and for the treatment of ulcers and lesions. Myrrh is even more powerful compared to incense as a cicatrizing agent and against mycosis.

Eucalyptus (Essential oil): mainly consisting in cineol (eucalyptol) and small quantities of monoterpenes, it has disinfectant, antibacterial, antiviral, balsamic, antiseptic and analgesic properties. It gives the product a pleasant taste and this particular feature makes it all the more appealing to use.

Owing to a particular production process, it is possible to add these ingredients to a thin, unwaxed type of dental floss, in order to hygienise interdental spaces in addition to mechanical cleansing.

The association of the above-described active constituents, essential for a definitive solution of aphteae and stomatitis, can be further supported by specific remedies indicated for the following actions:

– To hygienise toothbrushes between uses: a solution based on Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE), Neem seed oil and Eucalyptus essential oil.